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System box
Types of case: tower (mini, mid, big), desktop, barebone
-Inside of a case:
Power supply, hard drive(s), CD/DVD drive(s), case fan, motherboard and additional boards (přídavné karty), a lot of wires.
Motherboard
The main circuit board of a computer. Typically, the motherboard contains the CPU, BIOS, RAM memory, memory storage interfaces, ports, expansion slots, and all the controllers (řadič) required to control standard peripheral devices, such as the display screen, keyboard, and disk drive. Collectively, all these chips that reside on the motherboard are known as the motherboard's chipset.
On most PCs, it is possible to add memory chips directly to the motherboard. You may also be able to upgrade to a faster PC by replacing the CPU chip. To add additional core features, you may need to replace the motherboard entirely.
A collection of wires through which data is transmitted from one part of a computer to another is called BUS (sběrnice). You can think of a bus as a highway on which data travels within a computer. When used in reference to personal computers, the term bus usually refers to internal bus. This is the bus that connects all the internal computer components to the CPU and RAM memory. There's also an expansion bus that enables expansion (additional) boards to access the CPU and memory. Buses end up with slots, connectors or ports.
Motherboard contains the connectors for attaching additional boards.
Motherboard is sometimes abbreviated as mobo.
Additional boards (cards)
Graphic (video) card, sound card, network card, modem card, TV card
Processor (CPU)
CPU.- pronounced as separate letters it is the abbreviation for central processing unit -is the brain of the computer, where most calculations take place. In terms of computing power, the CPU is the most important element of a computer system.
On large machines, CPUs require one or more printed circuit boards. On personal computers and small workstations, the CPU is housed in a single chip called a microprocessor
The CPU itself is an internal component of the computer. Modern CPUs are small and square and contain multiple metallic connectors or pins on the underside. The CPU is inserted directly into a CPU socket on the motherboard. Each motherboard will support only a specific type or range of CPU so you must check the motherboard manufacturer's specifications before attempting to replace or upgrade a CPU. Modern CPUs also have an attached heat sink and small fan that goes directly on top of the CPU to help dissipate heat.
Two typical components of a CPU are the following:
The arithmetic logic unit (ALU), which performs arithmetic and logical operations.
The control unit (CU), which extracts instructions from memory and decodes and executes them, calling on the ALU when necessary.
Basic characteristics that differentiate microprocessors are:
Architecture (including number of cores)
Clock speed: Given in megahertz (MHz), the clock speed determines how many instructions per second the processor can execute.
CPU Cache (vyrovnávací paměť)
Dual-core refers to a CPU that includes two complete execution cores per physical processor. It combines two processors and their caches and cache controllers onto a single integrated circuit (silicon chip). It is basically two processors, in most cases, residing reside side-by-side on the same die(a square of silicon that contains an integrated circuit). Multi-core is somewhat of an expansion to dual-core technology and allows for more than two separate processors.
Taking Advantage of Dual-core Technology
A dual-core processor has many advantages especially for those looking to boost their system's multitasking computing power. Dual-core processors provide two complete execution cores instead of one, each with an independent interface to the frontside bus. Since each core has its own cache, the operating system has sufficient resources to handle intensive tasks in parallel, which provides a noticeable improvement to multitasking.
Types of memory:
ROM
acronym for read-only memory, computer memory on which data has been prerecorded. Once data has been written onto a ROM chip, it cannot be removed and can only be read.
ROM retains its contents even when the computer is turned off. ROM is referred to as being non-volatile (trvalá), used to store BIOS (the program that boots up the computer).
Many modern PCs have a flash BIOS, which means that the BIOS has been recorded on a flash memory chip, which can be updated if necessary
RAM
Acronym for random access memory, faster than ROM and volatile (dočasná), depending on the power supply (when you turn off your computer, the content is lost). There are two types of RAM –DRAM (dynamic RAM) and SRAM (static memory).
Main memory (called operating memory)
The computer can manipulate only data that is in main memory. Therefore, every program you execute and every file you access must be copied from a storage device into main memory.
The size (amount of main memory) on a computer is crucial (important) because it determines how many programs can be executed at one time and how much data can be readily available to a program.  Today usually 2GB.
Cache memory
A special high-speed storage mechanism. It can be either a reserved section of main memory or an independent high-speed storage device. Two types of caching are commonly used in personal computers: memory caching and disk caching.
A memory cache, sometimes called a cache store or RAM cache, is a portion of memory made of high-speed static RAM (SRAM) instead of the slower and cheaper dynamic RAM (DRAM) used for main memory. Memory caching is effective because most programs access the same data or instructions over and over. By keeping as much of this information as possible in SRAM, the computer avoids accessing the slower DRAM.
Disk caching works under the same principle as memory caching, but instead of using high-speed SRAM, a disk cache uses conventional main memory. The most recently accessed data from the disk (as well as adjacent sectors) is stored in a memory buffer. When a program needs to access data from the disk, it first checks the disk cache to see if the data is there. Disk caching can dramatically improve the performance of applications, because accessing a byte of data in RAM can be thousands of times faster than accessing a byte on a hard disk.
 
Back side (usually): ports and connectors
Ports and connectors - enable to connect peripheral devices and external memory storages.
Power supply, videoperts, USB ports, ethernet (network) port, ports to Conner mouse and keyboard (PS/2), parallel port (old printers), microphone (pink), speekers(green), headset